V.E. Borodachev

V.P. Gavrilo

M.M. Kazanskii

Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute

St. Petersburg, Russia


W.F. Weeks

Professor Emeritus, Geophysical Institute

University of Alaska, Fairbanks





ablation of snow and ice,

absolute elongation of ice,

accessible speed of vessel during its navigation in ice,

accuracy of ice forecast,

active ice layer,

active radio detection of ice,

actual ice navigation,

adhesion of ice,

adiabatic modulus of elasticity,

advection of ice,

aerated ice,

age of an ice sheet,

black ice,

dark ice,

first year ice,

glass ice,

— gray ice,

— gray-white ice,

grease ice,

ice rind

initial ice,

light ice,

— new snow ice,

old ice,

— first-year ice,

pack ice,

— pancake ice,

— perennial ice

— residual first year ice,

— second year ice,

— slush ice,

young ice,

age of hummocky formations,

— fresh,

— old,

— smoothed,

aggregate of ice crystals,

air content in iceberg,

air hole,

amorphous ice,

anchor ice,

anisotropy of mechanical properties of ice,

annual behavior of ice cover elements,

anticyclonic motion of ice,

atmospheric ice,

author’s lay-out of ice map,

autonomous navigation of vessel (icebreaker) in ice,

auxiliary ice-breaking vessel,



bare ice,

barrier of stranded landfast ice,

basal planes of an ice crystal,

basal plate,

bearing capacity of an ice sheet,

bedding of ice

black ice (nilas),

— dark ice,

— light ice,

block of ice

border of iceberg spreading

boundary of maximum ice extent,

boundary of minimum ice extent,

brackish ice

brash ice,

brash ice zone,

brine in ice,

brittle strength of ice,

broken ice,

"brown" zones,


cargo vessel ice certificate,

cataclasis of ice,


classification of ice forecasts,

— by content,

------- achievement of a specified thickness,

------- degrees of breakup,

------- ice compression,

------- ice coverage,

------- ice distribution,

------- ice drift,

------- ice massif,

------- ice thickness at the start of melting,

------- ice thickness forecast,

------- start ice ice formation,

------- time of fast ice breakup and the final destruction of the ice,

— by forecasting objectives,

------- river ice,

------- sea ice,

— by forecasting stages,

------- prelimary,

------- main,

------- correction,

------- episodic,

— by purpose,

------- special,

------- systematic,

— by term,

------- short-term,

------- medium-term,

------- long-term,

------- super-long-term,

------- emergency (episodic),

clear ice,

coastal ridge,

coating ice,

coefficient of dynamic viscosity of ice,

coefficient of ice thermal conductivity,

coefficient of light reflection by ice,

coefficient of the wind-driven drift of ice,

compact ice,

compact ice edge,

conditional-instant ice strength,


coagulation ice,

congelation-frazil ice (hydrogenous, water ice),

continental ice,

continuous navigation of a vessel,

convergence of ice,

convoy navigation with rare (frequent) ice breaking,

cove in ice,

coverage of vessels with ice,

cracks (in an ice sheet),

— isostatic,

— peeling,

— shift,

— slide-apart,

— slip,

— tear-off,

— thermal,

— tidal,

— waver,

cross-ice capacity of vessel,


crystalline hoarfrost (rime),

crystallization nuclei,

crystallization of water,

curve of ice creep,

curve of long-term ice strength,

cyclonic motion of ice,


dark ice

deformation modulus of ice,

deformation types,

degree of ice cover pollution,

degree of ice coverage with snow,

de-icing of water area,

desalting of sea ice (desalination),

destruction of ice sheet,

destructing ice,

destructive ice layer,

deviation angle of wind ice drift,

dimensions of ice fragments in hummocks,

direction of ice drift,

direction of ice event or process spreading,

dirty ice,

discharge of ice stress,

divergence of ice,

dried ice,

drift divide,

dynamic sea ice,

dynamo-elastic parameters of ice,


easiest way of ice navigation,

economic effect of ice forecast,

eddy motion of ice,



edge of shore ice,

effectiveness of ice forecast,

elastic moduli of ice,

elastic (Young’s) modulus,

elements of macrorelief of ice sheet (cover) surface,

ensembles (sets) of ice cover elements

equilibrium ice thickness,

error of long-term ice forecasts,

estimate of ice forecast quality,

evolution of ice sheet,

extremely dangerous ice phenomena,


fabric diagram of crystal axis orientations,

fast ice,

— foot of,

— shore ice,

— stable part of,

— unstable part of,

fast ice border,

fast ice formation,


first year ice,

— thin,

— medium thick,

— thick,

"float" oscillations of ice,


floe of conglomerate ice,


flooded ice,

fluctuations of ice drift,

foam ice,

forecasting of ice events and processes,

beginning of ice formation,

degrees of breakup,

fast ice breakup time,

final destruction of the ice,

ice coverage,

ice compression,

ice distribution,

ice drift,

ice forecast correction,

ice massif area,

ice thickness,

ice thickness at start of melting,





river ice,

sea ice,





time when specified thickness is reached,

— forecasting prerequisites,

— forecasting stages,

forecast model,

Forell banding,

fracture in an ice cover,

frazil ice,

freezing of water,

freezing of water body,

fresh ice,

fresh snow sheet,

fresh-water ice,

frost steam,



glaze (glazed ice),

glass ice,

Glen’s flow law for ice,

Gouging of the seafloor by hummock formations,

gradient of ice drift speed,

granular hoarfrost (rime),

gray ice,

gray-white ice,

grease ice,

grounded ice floe,

group velocity of waves in an ice sheet (velocity of the wave front),



hazardous ice phenomena,

heat capacity of ice,


hilly ice,

hilly pattern of multiyear ice,


hummock barrier,

hummock belt,

hummockness of ice,

— non-uniform,

— ridge hummockness,

hummock ridge

— angle of slope,

— draft,

— edge,

— foot,

— height,

— slope,

— width,

hydrodynamical models,

— hydro-thermodynamical models or mixed models,

— statistical models,

— thermodynamic models,

hydrogenic or congelation ice (water ice),

hydrolocation image of ice cover,

hydrometeorological information types,

— forecasting,

— navigatipon,

— primary,

— storm warning,

— regulatory and reference,

— review and analytical,

hydrometeorological support,

hydro-thermodynamics of ice,

ice accumulation,

ice activation energy,

ice airfield,

ice accumulation

ice albedo (snow albedo),

ice atlas,

ice balance of a water body,

ice barrier,

ice belt,


iceberg classification,

— classification of icebergs by age,

— — old icebergs,

— — young icebergs,

— classification of icebergs by color,

— classification of icebergs by location,

— classification of icebergs by shape,

— classification of icebergs by size,

iceberg compactness,

iceberg deposits,

iceberg draft,

iceberg halo,

iceberg height,

iceberg length,

iceberg melting and destruction intensity,

iceberg rams,

iceberg seasons,

iceberg steepness of slope,

iceberg stub,

iceberg tongue,

iceberg waterline,

iceberg waters,

iceberg wave terrace,

ice berth,

ice blink,

ice blistering,

ice block,

ice boundary,

— boundary of maximum ice spread,

— boundary of minimum ice spread,


icebreaker pilotage of vessels,

— by leading,

— by towing,

ice-breaking area,

ice canopy,

ice classification,

ice code,

ice composition,

ice compressibility (volume elasticity modulus),

ice concrete,

ice conditions,

ice cores,

ice corrugation,

ice cover,

ice cover dynamics,

ice creep,

ice creep curve,

ice crust,

ice crystals,

ice crystal translation planes,

ice dam,

ice deformation,

— absolute (absolute ice elongation),

— bending,

— elastic,

— elongation,

— plastic (residual or inelastic),

— relative (relative elongation),

— shear,

— triaxial (volume) compression,

— uniaxial compression,

— volume expansion,

ice deformation tensor,

ice density,

ice diffusion,

ice disk,

ice draft,

ice drift,

— direction,

— velocity,

ice echogram,

ice edge,


— diffuse,

— open edge of ice,

shore ice,

ice elasticity,

ice exclusion,


ice field,

— small,

— medium,

— large,


— with ram,

— fragmental,

— mushroom-shaped,

— patch floe,

ice-floes drift,

ice forecast,

ice forecasting methods,

— analog,

basic models,


— inertial,

— numerical,


typical ice conditions,

ice formation,

ice fragmentation (cataclasis),

ice free navigation,

ice-going capacity,

ice-going property of vessel,

ice grain,

ice growth,

ice hardness,

ice heap,

ice height,

ice hill,

ice hummocking,

ice ideomorphism,

ice keel,

ice layer,

ice load,

ice maneuverability,

ice marker,

ice massif,


ice barrier,

ice dam,

ice tongue

— local,

— localized,

— ocean,

— periphery,

— regional,

— spot,

— zone,

ice mechanics,

ice melting,

ice melting temperature,

ice monitoring post,

ice monocrystal,

ice morphometry,

ice-mound ice,

ice navigation,

ice opposition,

ice overhang,

ice overlap,

ice passage,

ice piece,

ice phenomenon,

ice plate,

ice plasticity,

ice platform,

ice pollution,

— anthropogenic,

— mechanical,

— natural,

ice porosity,

ice pressure,

ice processes,

ice rafting,

ice ram,

ice rarefaction,

ice regime,

ice relaxation,

ice rind,

ice road,

ice roughness,

ice running velocity of a vessel,

ice sample strength-changing scale effect,

ice season,

ice sheet,

ice sheet cracks,

— isostatic,

— peeling,

— shift,

— slide-apart,

— slip,

— split,

— tear-off,

— tide,

— thermic (thermal),

— wave,

ice sheet element,

ice sheet isostacy,

ice sheet stability,

ice shoved under the sheet,

ice sky,

ice slick,

ice spirals,

ice splitting

ice sky,

ice spirals (eddies),

ice splitting,

ice spot,

ice state,

ice stalactites,

ice stratification,

ice strength,

— kinetic concept,

— mechanical concept,

ice strength curve under biaxial compression,

ice strength of vessel,

ice strips,

ice structure,

ice survey data,

ice swelling,

ice texture,

ice thickness,

ice tongue,

ice transfer by currents,

ice transparency,

ice unification,

ice viscosity,

ice viscosity index (internal friction coefficient),

ice waves,

ice window,

ice yearbook,

ice zone,


— atmospheric,

— hydrospheric,

— icing parameters,

— mixed,

impact viscosity,

index of light attenuation by ice,

index of light refraction by ice,

index of light scattering by ice,

index of radiation absorption by ice,

indicatrix of light scattering by ice,

inertial motion of ice,

inflations (snow barkhans, russ.),

infrared radiation of ice (snow) sheet,

infrared survey (IR survey) of snow and ice surface,

injection-ice (mound ice),

interaction between ice floes,

intrawater ice,

initial ablation microrelief,

initial (new) ice,

internal friction of ice,

isobaric ice drift,

— deviation angle,

— isobaric coefficient,

isostasy of ice sheet,

isothermic elasticity modulus of ice,


justifiability of ice forecasts,


laboratory ice,

lacy ice,

lake ice,

large-scale ice drift,

laser profiling of ice,

life duration of an iceberg,

lifetime of an ice floe,

light ice,

limit of the mechanical endurance of ice,

limit of long-term ice creep,

limit of long-term ice strength or creep limit,

local nonuniformity of ice sheet,

logarithmic damping factor,


mapping of ice conditions,

mathematical modeling of ice sheets,

mechanical properties of ice,

mechanical stresses in ice,

mechanics of ice,

mesoscale drift of ice,

metamorphism of ice sheet,

microrelief of sea ice,

microwave radiometry of snow and ice covers,

mixed ice,

modeled (laboratory) ice,

modulus of dilatation,

modulus of elasticity,

monocrystalline ice,

morenitsa (russ.),

morphometric features of ice sheet relief,

multiyear ice,


naslood (russ.),

natural hydrologic period,

natural ice,

— aerated,

— anchor,

— atmospheric,

— black,

— clear,

— coating,

— congelation (hydrogenous),

— congelation-intrawater,

— fresh,

— fresh-water,

— ice-mound,

— injection-ice-mound,

— intrawater (ice gruel),

— lake,

— regelation,

— river,

— salt-water,

— sea,

— snow,

— snow-water,

— water-snow,

new snow ice,



non-elasticity of ice,

number of icebergs,

numerical ice forecasts of low timeliness,

numerical long-term ice forecasts,

numerical methods,


old ice,

old snowsheet,

on-shore ice,

open brine drainage channels,

open ice edge,

optical axis of crystal (principal crystallographic axis or c-axis),

optical properties of ice,

orthotropic crystallization,

outlet glacier,


pack ice (pack),

pancake ice,

perennial ice,

permissible error of ice forecasts,

permissible speed of vessel navigation in ice,

phase of ice sheet development,

phase speed of elastic oscillation spread in ice,

photographic survey,

piece of ice,



Poisson’s ratio of ice,


— antropogenic,

— terrigenous,

— thalassogenic,

— volcanic,


— episodic (unstable),

— ocean or open sea ,

— off-estuary,

— off-fast-ice,

— off-shore,

— stationary,


port ice-breaker,

pressing ice drift,

pressing-off ice drift,

pressing-off wind,

pressing wind,

pressured ice,

primary information,

principal crystallographic axis (C-axis),

probability of finding ice,


provision of ice forecast method,



quiet ice,


radar surveys,


rarefied ice,

rasvodije (russ.) (clear water area),

recommended standard (traditional) navigation in ice,

regelation ice,

regelation recrystallization,

reinforced ice,

relaxation related ice oscillations,

relaxation time, (slow ice processes),

relaxation time, (fast ice processes)

reliability of ice forecasts,

relief formation processes,

relief of ice sheet surfaces,

remote sensing methods of sea ice study,

residual first year ice,

residual or non-elastic deformation,

resulting ice drift,


river ice,

ropack (russ.),

rotation of floes,

rotten (honeycomb) ice,

route of ice drift,

running speed of vessel (convoy of vessels) in ice,


salinity of sea ice,

salting of ice,

salt-water ice,

scale effects on ice sample strength,

science of sea ice,

scientific & operative group,

scientific & operative maintenance,



sea ice,

sea ice coverage,

second-year ice,

secular behavior of ice parameters,

seismoacoustic modulus,

shear modulus (shear rigidity),

shelf glacier,

shelf harbor,

shelf ice,

shoaled ice,

shuga (intrawater ice),

skeleton layer,

slush ice (interwater ice),

small-scale drift of ice,

smooth ice,

smoothing of ice sheet surface,


snow albedo,

snow concrete,

snow-covered ice,


snow-free ice,

snow ice,

snow ridges,

snow sheet height,

snow-water ice,

sound velocity in ice,

space survey,

space factor of a hummock,

spatial heterogeneity of ice cover,

spatial structure of ice cover,

— arch,

— dendrite,

— layered,

— polygonal,

— sheaf,

— spotted,

— vortical,

specialized forecasts,

— for the fishing industry,

for over-ice transport work,


— navigation,

specific energy of ice destruction,

specific heat,

— of ice sublimation,

— of ice melting,

— of water vapor sublimation,

spreading ice,

spread of ice event,

— maximum,

— non-zonal,

— zonal,

stability of the ice drift direction,

stable ice flows,

stagnant sea ice,


state of ice sheet,

static elastic features,

strength characteristics of ice,

— elasticity limit,

— proportionality limit,

— strength limit (temporary resistance),

— yield limit,

structure of an ice drift field,

stuck ice,

stuffed ice,

sublimation of ice (snow),

submerged ice,

subsident ice,

supporting power (bearing capacity) of ice sheet,

surface brine,

swelling hill,

systems of uniformity violations,


tangent of mechanical losses in ice,

thawed patch,

thawed pool depth,

theoretical ice strength,

thermal conductivity of ice,

thermal cracking of icebergs,

thermal diffusivity of ice (thermal diffusivity coefficient),

thermic destruction,

thermodynamic models,

thermophysical (thermic) properties of ice,

tidal ice drift

time of safe load parking on ice,

time resistance,

tortuousity coefficient of ice crystal faces,

tortuousity of ice drift,

total iceberg discharge,


Tyndall figures (flowers),

type of ice,

types of hydrometeorological information,

— forecasting,

— navigational recommendations,

— primary,

— regulatory and reference,

— review and analytical,

— storm warning,


ultrasonic modulus,


underwater ice dome,


velocity of ice drift,

velocity of wave front,

verification of forecasts,

vessel (convoy) drift,

vessel icing,

vessels movement by reciprocating motions,

viscous ice flow,

visual studies,

volume compression (volume elasticity modulus),

volume modulus of elasticity


wake behind iceberg,

water height (mark) in thawed pools,

water ice,

"water" shadows,

water sky,

water-snow ice,

wavy ice,

waves in the ice,

— air-coupled flexural,

— elastic,

— flexural-gravitational,

— gravitational,

— longitudinal (volume or expansion waves),

— Raleigh,

— slow,

— transverse (distortion wave),

wind drift of ice,

wind furrows,


yield limit,

young ice,


zone of island influence on ice drift,